Laing J E, Heels P R, 1978. North America has a number of species of native thistle in the genus Cirsium that are susceptible to damage from R. conicus. > 0Â°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. In early summer, beetles congregate, and boy meets girl. From Saskatchewan and Ontario R. conicus was moved and released into the USA, in Virginia and Montana, in 1969. And, in the “Ain’t the Internet Grand” category, a Google search for “weevil on thistle” resulted in a quick ID. Indeed, it appears that R. conicus lays more eggs on early capitula than the individual captulum can support, as in the native range parasitoids often kill a proportion of eggs; however, this over-laying of eggs can mean that capitula in the exotic range may wilt under the attack levels of R. conicus, leaving all larvae dead (Cullen and Sheppard, 2012). R. conicus in its native range can also be quite heavily attacked by Nosema, a microsporidian parasite (Woodburn and Cullen, 1995; Cullen and Sheppard, 2012). 2010), Based on impact on native thistles (Louda et al. They are dark/black in color, but freshly-emerged individuals are mottled with a coat of short black and yellowish hairs that makes them look like they’re dusted with pollen. Turner et al. This habit favors attack by R. conicus. Musk thistle. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. North America has about 90 species of native thistle in the genus Cirsium (USDA, 2013). http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3285.pdf. Feldman S R, 1997. Release and establishment of the thistle-head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus, in Australia. Interspecific competition between Rhinocyllus conicus and Urophora solstitialis, two biocontrol agents released in Australia against Carduus nutans. Re-test of Rhinocyllus conicus host specificity, and the prediction of ecological risk in biological control. Ecology, 76(1):229-245, Louda SM, Potvin MA, Collinge SK, 1990. This weevil is one of a diverse community of insects found in the capitula of its host plants in its native range (Sheppard et al., 1991; 1994). Melbourne, Australia: DSIR/CSIRO, 411-414, ZwÃ¶lfer H, Harris P, 1984. What a journey! Rhinocyllus conicus (FrÃ¶lich) (Col.: Curculionidae) in Surrey and South Essex. These differences relate to the different ecotypes by both region and host, and allow this species to persist under a broader range of hosts and climates. As they are strong fliers, in spring they relocate their host plants and start feeding externally as their ovaries mature and they prepare to initiate oviposition on the first captiula to form. Overall, R. conicus was less effective in Australia due to asynchrony with its host. Figure 2. R. conicus has eight synonyms (Hoffmann, 1956; Alonso-Zarazaga and Talamelli, 2011). Biological control can be a “Be careful what you wish for” scenerio, and we are getting better at it, but the BugLady worries that at the base of any bio-control decision, there’s a value judgement about acceptable collateral damages. They have been re-distributed during one or more âweevil roundupsâ that are held each year, where participants learn about musk thistle control and collect weevils for release (Figure 9). Biological control of plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides L.) in Argentina. A black beetle with a pattern of pale, patchy hairs on its elytra. Exotic weevil invasion increases floral herbivore community density, function, and impact on a native plant. Another week, another alien beetle eating an alien thistle. Natural enemies and population stability of the winter-annual Carduus pycnocephalus L. in Mediterranean Europe. This post is about a weed and insect that I hope are not in your fields, but may be in your pastures or field margins. Some may be subspecies. The seed weevil was first released in Australia 1992. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 62(4):329-332, Woodburn TL, 1996. While they specialize on thistles in the genus Carduus, a lot depends on synchrony – lining up their reproductive schedule with the budding of the plants. Berry. Description. Maw (1982) also found eggs on the native C. flodmanii (Rydb.) In: Biological control of weeds in Australia 1960 to 2010 [ed. Like the Thistle tortoise beetle, of very recent BOTW fame, the Nodding Thistle Receptacle Beetle (Rhinocyllus conicus) is not originally from these parts; it hails from Eurasia and North Africa. The other four species in the genus Rhinocyllus also feed in the capitula of members of the tribe Cardueae (in the Asteraceae). Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Subphylum: Uniramia, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Class: Insecta, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Order: Coleoptera, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Family: Curculionidae, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Genus: Rhinocyllus, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Species: Rhinocyllus conicus, Highly adaptable to different environments, Negatively impacts animal/plant collections, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant. In its exotic range R. conicus has also attracted parasitoids (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984; Wilson and Andres, 1986), but at quite low rates. By 2001, weevils had been released in 34 counties. > 10Â°C, coldest month < 0Â°C, dry summers), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 109:3-8, Louda SM, 1998. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. 229-245. Zwölfer and Harris (1984) stated that R. conicus âhas been established in most parts of North America with a Carduus nutans problemâ; C. nutans is known from nearly all of North America except 5 US states and 4 Canadian Provinces (USDA, 2013). A while before exiting the flower, 110 ( 2 ):181-191, Laing JE, Heels P,! This community tend to be those that flower early in the eastern United States [ ed in,! Vulgare ( Savi ) Tenore - spear thistle Froel. 25 ( 3 ) weeds, Stellenbosch South... Week, another alien beetle eating an alien thistle function, and the Rhine,. Society of America, no vulnerable native or economically important plants occur within the,. Few other countries where the thistle flower head C. G. ] parasitoid in its case..., the same year the National environmental Policy Act was crafted on native thistles in California from which develop. 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