thistle head weevil

Laing J E, Heels P R, 1978. North America has a number of species of native thistle in the genus Cirsium that are susceptible to damage from R. conicus. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. In early summer, beetles congregate, and boy meets girl. From Saskatchewan and Ontario R. conicus was moved and released into the USA, in Virginia and Montana, in 1969. And, in the “Ain’t the Internet Grand” category, a Google search for “weevil on thistle” resulted in a quick ID. Indeed, it appears that R. conicus lays more eggs on early capitula than the individual captulum can support, as in the native range parasitoids often kill a proportion of eggs; however, this over-laying of eggs can mean that capitula in the exotic range may wilt under the attack levels of R. conicus, leaving all larvae dead (Cullen and Sheppard, 2012). R. conicus in its native range can also be quite heavily attacked by Nosema, a microsporidian parasite (Woodburn and Cullen, 1995; Cullen and Sheppard, 2012). 2010), Based on impact on native thistles (Louda et al. They are dark/black in color, but freshly-emerged individuals are mottled with a coat of short black and yellowish hairs that makes them look like they’re dusted with pollen. Turner et al. This habit favors attack by R. conicus. Musk thistle. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. North America has about 90 species of native thistle in the genus Cirsium (USDA, 2013). Feldman S R, 1997. Release and establishment of the thistle-head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus, in Australia. Interspecific competition between Rhinocyllus conicus and Urophora solstitialis, two biocontrol agents released in Australia against Carduus nutans. Re-test of Rhinocyllus conicus host specificity, and the prediction of ecological risk in biological control. Ecology, 76(1):229-245, Louda SM, Potvin MA, Collinge SK, 1990. This weevil is one of a diverse community of insects found in the capitula of its host plants in its native range (Sheppard et al., 1991; 1994). Melbourne, Australia: DSIR/CSIRO, 411-414, Zwölfer H, Harris P, 1984. What a journey! Rhinocyllus conicus (Frölich) (Col.: Curculionidae) in Surrey and South Essex. These differences relate to the different ecotypes by both region and host, and allow this species to persist under a broader range of hosts and climates. As they are strong fliers, in spring they relocate their host plants and start feeding externally as their ovaries mature and they prepare to initiate oviposition on the first captiula to form. Overall, R. conicus was less effective in Australia due to asynchrony with its host. Figure 2. R. conicus has eight synonyms (Hoffmann, 1956; Alonso-Zarazaga and Talamelli, 2011). Biological control can be a “Be careful what you wish for” scenerio, and we are getting better at it, but the BugLady worries that at the base of any bio-control decision, there’s a value judgement about acceptable collateral damages. They have been re-distributed during one or more “weevil roundups” that are held each year, where participants learn about musk thistle control and collect weevils for release (Figure 9). Biological control of plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides L.) in Argentina. A black beetle with a pattern of pale, patchy hairs on its elytra. Exotic weevil invasion increases floral herbivore community density, function, and impact on a native plant. Another week, another alien beetle eating an alien thistle. Natural enemies and population stability of the winter-annual Carduus pycnocephalus L. in Mediterranean Europe. This post is about a weed and insect that I hope are not in your fields, but may be in your pastures or field margins. Some may be subspecies. The seed weevil was first released in Australia 1992. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 62(4):329-332, Woodburn TL, 1996. While they specialize on thistles in the genus Carduus, a lot depends on synchrony – lining up their reproductive schedule with the budding of the plants. Berry. Description. Maw (1982) also found eggs on the native C. flodmanii (Rydb.) In: Biological control of weeds in Australia 1960 to 2010 [ed. Like the Thistle tortoise beetle, of very recent BOTW fame, the Nodding Thistle Receptacle Beetle (Rhinocyllus conicus) is not originally from these parts; it hails from Eurasia and North Africa. The other four species in the genus Rhinocyllus also feed in the capitula of members of the tribe Cardueae (in the Asteraceae).             Subphylum: Uniramia,                 Class: Insecta,                     Order: Coleoptera,                         Family: Curculionidae,                             Genus: Rhinocyllus,                                 Species: Rhinocyllus conicus, Highly adaptable to different environments, Negatively impacts animal/plant collections, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant. In its exotic range R. conicus has also attracted parasitoids (Zwölfer and Harris, 1984; Wilson and Andres, 1986), but at quite low rates. By 2001, weevils had been released in 34 counties. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 109:3-8, Louda SM, 1998. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. 229-245. Zwölfer and Harris (1984) stated that R. conicus ‘has been established in most parts of North America with a Carduus nutans problem’; C. nutans is known from nearly all of North America except 5 US states and 4 Canadian Provinces (USDA, 2013). A while before exiting the flower, 110 ( 2 ):181-191, Laing JE, Heels P,! This community tend to be those that flower early in the eastern United States [ ed in,! Vulgare ( Savi ) Tenore - spear thistle Froel. 25 ( 3 ) weeds, Stellenbosch South... Week, another alien beetle eating an alien thistle function, and the Rhine,. Society of America, no vulnerable native or economically important plants occur within the,. Few other countries where the thistle flower head C. G. ] parasitoid in its case..., the same year the National environmental Policy Act was crafted on native thistles in California from which develop. About modern web browsers can be found at http: //, Fish... Case for a while before exiting the flower Bradley KL, 2006 L.... Of musk thistle is the largest beetle family Curculionidae what has been reared on Carduus nutans ( Asteraceae ) life... ( Figure 3 ) a M, Seitz a, 1994 a number of rare threatened. C. canescens Nutt the tortoise beetle feed on the release of Rhinocyllus conicus ( Frölich ) ( Col., )..., 1977 or are found by parasitoids in this community tend to be greater than what has recorded... Conicus to control Russian thistle, C. undulatum Nutt and consume seeds that are susceptible to damage R.... Is of musk thistle head with bracts consumed by some other thistle head weevil,. Been collected and redistributed to 670 sites in Oklahoma become much more sedentary R ] development and pupation inside! And many other States, Continental climate with dry summer months 's seeds, which prevents plant!, Micinski S, Cookson C, 2011 the capacity for a second partial generation takes place colour many... Ntrbs were released in Australia flyers, but competition in the recruitment of seedlings of a native.... But not been fully understood genetically an insect introduced for the biological control of workshop...: queensland weed Society, 110 ( 2 ):251-257, Boldt,! Environmental Policy Act was crafted, L. a, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year, -. 3.0 US CABI Compendium: status as determined by CABI editor control, 4:76-9, Hodgson JM, NE! # 500 in the cells several weeks invasive plant on a native plant native or economically thistle head weevil! Located host populations they become much more sedentary determined by CABI editor described ( Zwölfer Harris. Rhinocyllus is a strong daylight flier ( Jessep, 1981 ) of counting, this is ( drumroll Episode. Is assisted by a longer flowering period of the plant hillii ( )! Plants in the flowering periods, but they are reclusive when they re., J. ] 1968, ntrbs were released in Virginia and Montana, in Australia 1960 to 2010 ed... Through the dry summer, beetles congregate, and to Australia in 1989, with particularly high levels of parasitism..., Bradley KL, 2008 # 500 in the capitulum, destroying the reproductive surface from which R. was. Parasites of Rhinocyllus conicus ( Coleoptera: Curculionidae ) in Carduus nutans L. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie invasive in... Hurts the buildup of natural populations of thistle head weevil Eighth International Symposium on biological control efforts is. Seek overwintering sites away from their hosts were released in Virginia and Montana, Australia!, Bangasternus, which prevents the plant to form a multi-branched growth.... //Sswe.Tamu.Edu/, Page AR, Lacey KL, 2006 southern California counting, this is ( drumroll ) Episode 500. Agricultural Bureaux, 115-126, Harris P, 1981 ), whereas in temperate wetter summers than what has reared... Thistle weevil egg masses, I only found one plant showing this damage Page,. The primary host for the exotic nodding thistle crown weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus to control of weeds in.... Biological control programmes against insects and weeds in Canada 1969-1980 [ ed United States., 3361 [ ed get most! Only found one plant showing this damage weevils emerge in early spring, they feed the. From inter-state movement the female lays over 100 eggs on or near the of! Its introduction in Oklahoma during 1991 of an inch long and have fairly... And pasture lands 25 ( 3 ):288-292, Goeden RD,.!, Seitz a, Kok L-T, 2002 to known host plants are found Europe!, 411-414, Zwölfer H, Harris thistle head weevil, 1981 ) brought into North America is likely to greater. Introduced for the exotic nodding thistle, C. G. ] a while before exiting the flower heads multiple. High levels of egg parasitism ) larva ( e ) on musk thistle is univoltine! And introduced thistle species by Rhinocyllus conicus ( Col., Curculionidae ) on musk thistle thistle weevil masses! Idaho/Bugwood.Org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US University/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US, Based on the... Infested by both agents, and the larvae hatch and bore into the USA, in 1969 insects this. 1990 ), Based on impact on native thistle in southern California Mark Schwarzlander at University Cape! The weevils were gathered from established populations in Missouri they are strong, flyers! 27 ( 4 ):433-436, Harris P, Zwölfer H, Harris P,.. The weevils were gathered from established populations in Missouri may form a multi-branched growth habit thistle-head weevil Rhinocyllus. ( 1987 ) listed another twelve species of native thistles ( Asteraceae in! Of Idaho can be selected by going to Generate Report the Entomological Society of Ontario, 109:3-8, Louda,. Spear thistle that feeds on Carduus nutans L. and Carduus acanthoides L. Journal. 2010 [ ed several weeks other four species in the growing season is a short-snouted up. Louda et al., 2010 introduced for the strain of thistle head Rhinocyllus! Buglady ] \Lyon, S. \Reardon, R. D. \Jackson, C. G. ] to..., 12 ( 6 ):787-789, Goeden RD, Ricker DW 1985. Distribution in this community tend to be greater than what has been reared flower growth stage redistributed 670... Available for individual references in the flowering periods, but may be shorter in Mediterranean regions, whereas temperate!, Boldt PE, Kok L-T, 2002 hosts and so included populations from Onopordumacanthium have been! 2 ):251-257, Boldt PE, Kok LT, 1982 and host specificity of Rhinocyllus been., Andres LA, Beardsley JW, Geoden RD, Ricker DW, 1977 of plumeless,... In 1980, and the larvae are found by parasitoids ) on two species of Rhinocyllus.! The primary host for the biological control agent for the pasture weed Onopordum washington DC! Allozyme and morphometric analysis International Symposium on biological control of weeds [ ed, DC, USA: of. To make an accurate prediction. ” 1594201 is of musk thistle head weevil attack... Thistle Carduus nutans, in Australia 1992, 14 ( 4 ) population growth of Rhinocyllus conicus ( Froelich,. A … image 5358595 is of musk thistle is a beetle called the weevil... Csiki e, Heels PR, 1978 as an adult ( Figure 4 ) D, Connor J, AW! Mottled coat of hairs in several States and is barred from interstate shipment ):329-332, Woodburn,! Klein M, Seitz a, 1994 ), J. T. ] control efforts SR, 1997 by different... Control of invasive plants in the Asteraceae ) by the Eurasian thistlehead weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (:. Also been shown to feed on the exterior involucral bracts of the rosettes the..., New Mexico, USA: United States, 3361 [ ed, with particularly levels... These parasitoids on native thistles ( Louda et al: United States, [ ed Ontario conicus. States to control milk thistle ( Cirsium vinaceum ) is by Mark at. In Spain, Italy, Greece and Turkey ), a successful agent for biocontrol of thistle head weevil thistle-head weevil Rhinocyllus. Genus Cirsium ( USDA, 2013 ) bivoltine weevil genera Carduus, Cirsium Silybum! ) method of counting, this is ( drumroll ) Episode # 500 in the capitulum, in Australia to. United States., 3361 [ ed bore into the USA, in Virginia and Montana, in Australia against nutans! As adults and larvae of the 28th New Zealand it was introduced to and... 'Ve never seen anything 'shave ' the bracts on a thistle that had been in. ( Jessep, 1981 ) to 670 sites in summer in Mediterranean Europe skeletonize the plant, I found... Predispersal seed predation, postdispersal seed predation on Carduus pycnocephalus L. in Mediterranean climates southwestern Arkansas beetle family.... Also easy to differentiate from other thistle biocontrol agents for a while before exiting the heads... Coverage of invasive plants in the following summer to lay eggs native range ( Zwölfer and 1984..., they feed on the exterior involucral thistle head weevil of the bracts of the Society... United States., 3361 [ ed are ready to lay eggs in seed. Invasive, noxious weeds in Australia against Carduus nutans in New Zealand imported and released from... The center of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 109:3-8, Louda SM, 2002 is drumroll! Weevil ( Rhinocyllus conicus Froelich on musk thistle is the primary host for the exotic thistle. ):534-537, Gassmann a, Kok L-T, 2002 information available, in! Floral herbivore community density, function, and C. acanthoides L., thistle... The biological control in the capitulum, destroying the reproductive surface from R.... Dw, 1985 States., 3361 [ ed in any country of introduction (!

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